The rise of populists has challenged traditional political parties in many parts of the world. The success of populists is attributed to a large segment of the population feeling un- or underrepresented by the existing political parties? What is it about contemporary political parties that they have difficulty successfully representing citizen interests? This course delves into political parties' origins, support bases, and organizations to understand why political parties are facing an existential crisis in different parts of the world. The course is for political science majors who wish to know the various forms of organization of political parties, how parties change, and the impact of political competition on party systems. Possible countries may include Brazil, Canada, India, and Spain.